The most common types of pigmentation problems are melasma and post-inflammatory pigmentation. It is important to distinguish the level of pigmentation. Under visible natural light, the epidermal pigmentation appears light brown compared to dermal pigmentation, which appears dark brown. 

Sun damage: Both UVA and UVB ultraviolet rays damage the skin. UVA has less energy but penetrates deeper into the dermis and is the cause of dermal damage. It can interfere with and alter DNA in the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for collagen and elastin.